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## Download the work report of Physics Laboratory 2

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### The experiments of this series are as follows

Calculate the size of the resistor

Measurement of unknown resistance by Paul Watson method

Investigate the law oh

Familiarity with measuring devices

Familiarity and how to work with an oscilloscope

View waveforms

Measure the voltage from peak to peak of a wave

Measuring the voltage of a wave point

Frequency measurement

Kirchhoff's laws and their application in simple direct current circuits

Study of capacitor charge and discharge in direct current

Measurement of internal resistance of power supply and battery

Measurement of internal resistance of voltmeter

Calculate the size of the resistor

Study of Kirchhoff's laws

Introduction:

Kirchhoff's laws are principles that are used in the study and calculation of circuits and electrical networks, and the case of direct current circuits of these laws are described below.

1- The first law of Kirchhoff: (law of branches)

At any point in an electrical circuit, the sum of the currents entering that point is equal to the intensity of the currents flowing out of that point, or in other words, the algebraic sum of the currents flowing to a point is zero.

Anywhere in the circuit (any node)

In the above relation, it should be noted that the sign of currents that approach a point and the current that move away from that point are considered different, for example, currents that approach a point with a positive sign and currents that come from Those points are algebraically summed with a negative sign (or vice versa, ie the input currents with a negative sign and the output currents with a positive sign). This law is derived from the principle of cargo survival.

2- Kirchhoff's second law: (closed circuit law)

Consider the circuit as shown in the figure below. In this circuit, it is emphasized that the electromotive force E always has an internal resistance. This resistor is located inside the battery and between its two poles and is an integral part of the battery. If we considered it outside the polarity of the battery in the above figure, it was because we always considered the existence of this resistor.

At dt, the amount of Ri2dt energy in the external resistor R and ri2dt in the battery is expressed as thermal energy. During this period, the value of dq = Idt is transferred from one pole of the battery to another pole; What the battery does to transfer this amount of charge is equal to:

According to the principle of conservation of energy, the work done by the battery must be equal to the thermal energy:

(1)

Given that the electric potential of a point has a value (the value of the electric potential is unique), if we start moving in any direction from any orbital point and add the electric potential change circuit when we return to the starting point We must have the same potential as before, that is, the algebraic sum of the potential changes becomes zero when we complete a circuit. For example, if in the figure above, from point a, where the electric potential is assumed to be Va, start moving and travel the circuit in a clockwise direction, the electrical potential changes by IR as it passes through the resistor. The sign (-) indicates that the upper part of the resistor is higher than the lower part in the electric potential, and this is absolutely true because positive charge carriers tend to go from higher potential to lower potential (the direction of charge current is positive and we We started moving in the direction of the current) when we pass the battery, the potential increases by + E because the battery does a positive job on the load carriers. Because it transfers them from a point that has little potential to a point that has more potential. Similarly, if we algebra the potentials together, when we reach the initial point, the potential value of this point must again be Va; Therefore, it can be written:

Whenever we apply the potential difference of the variable V to the two ends of a conducting object, for each applied potential difference we measure the current I and plot its representation in terms of V. The straight line obtained indicates that the resistance of this conductor is always constant and does not depend on the voltage we apply to its gain. This important conclusion that applies to metal conductors is known as the ohmic law, and any conductor that follows this law is called the ohmic conductor.

It should be noted that most conductors do not follow Ohm's law and the relation IR = V does not express Ohm's law. The conductor follows this rule only if its curves V and R are linear.

Test equipment:

Several known resistors, voltmeter, ammeter, power supply, interface wires.

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