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Download the laboratory report of sugar technology

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Today, for you, dear users of the Yekta File website, we have put a work report ready for the sugar technology course ready for download, the details of which are as follows.

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Download the laboratory report of sugar technology

Today, for you, dear users of the Yekta File website, we have put a work report ready for the sugar technology course ready for download, the details of which are as follows.

Test title: Acidity and alkalinity of lime

The pH of raw syrup extracted from healthy and fresh beets is between 6.4-6.3. The raw syrup made from rotten beets will have a pH less than 6. Lime is used to purify raw syrup in sugar factory. It means that first lime is added to the syrup to flocculate the impurity of the syrup. In the next step, CO2 gas is injected into the limed syrup until CaCO3 precipitate is formed. And during rapid precipitation, impurities will also precipitate along with it. By adding lime juice to the raw syrup, the lime salts in the syrup increase, some of which are used to neutralize the oleic acids in the beetroot syrup, and some remain in excess, which causes alkalinity.

Test Title: Polarimeter (Determining the Deviation of Dilute Syrup)
This method is used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of objects that have optical activity. White light vibrates in all directions, and if it passes through Polaroid objects like some natural crystals, it is divided into two rays. Because the speed of each of the two rays inside the crystal is different. If you cut the crystal along one of the poles with a suitable angle. And stick it again with a gum called Canada balsam, the part called normal radiation is reflected and exits. In the event that the part called abnormal radiation (polarized) is emitted without failure, the vibration of this light is on the same level and perpendicular to the direction of its propagation. There are objects with optical activity that have in their molecular structure carbon atoms (i.e. carbon atoms that are four different groups are connected). This carbon atom causes the molecule to become asymmetric and the molecule cannot conform to its mirror image. If these objects are placed in the path of polarized light, they cause the rotation of polarized light. If the object rotates the polarized light clockwise, it is called dextrorotatory, and if it rotates counterclockwise, it is called levorotatory. They say The amount of rotation (?) is proportional to the concentration of the body (C). Or it can be said that when the polarized light passes through asymmetric compounds, due to the asymmetric distribution of electron density in the molecule, the electrons of the molecule affect the polarized light asymmetrically and cause it to rotate around the emission axis. Molecules that do not have optical activity because they face symmetric electron scattering have no effect on polarized light. Compounds that do not have compatible mirror images have optical isomers. Two optical isomers form an enantiomer pair. which are the same in terms of physical and chemical properties and differ only in the direction of rotation of polarized light. An equal mixture of two enantiomers, which are the same in terms of absolute value but opposite in terms of direction, completely neutralize each other. The resulting rotation is zero, such a mixture is called racemic.

Test title: Polarimetry
This method is used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of objects that have optical activity. White light vibrates in all directions, and if it passes through Polaroid objects like some natural crystals, it is divided into two rays. Because the speed of each of the two rays inside the crystal is different. If you cut the crystal along one of the poles with a suitable angle. And stick it again with a gum called Canada balsam, the part called normal radiation is reflected and exits. In the event that the part called abnormal radiation (polarized) is emitted without failure, the vibration of this light is on the same level and perpendicular to the direction of its propagation. There are objects with optical activity that have in their molecular structure carbon atoms (i.e. carbon atoms that are four different groups are connected). This carbon atom causes the molecule to become asymmetric and the molecule cannot conform to its mirror image. If these objects are placed in the path of polarized light, they cause the rotation of polarized light. If the object rotates the polarized light clockwise, it is called dextrorotatory, and if it rotates counterclockwise, it is called levorotatory. They say
The amount of rotation (?) is proportional to the concentration of the body (C). Or it can be said that when the polarized light passes through asymmetric compounds, due to the asymmetric distribution of electron density in the molecule, the electrons of the molecule affect the polarized light asymmetrically and cause it to rotate around the emission axis. Molecules that do not have optical activity because they face symmetric electron scattering have no effect on polarized light.
Compounds that do not have compatible mirror images have optical isomers. Two optical isomers form an enantiomer pair. which are the same in terms of physical and chemical properties and differ only in the direction of rotation of polarized light. An equal mixture of two enantiomers, which are the same in terms of absolute value but opposite in terms of direction, completely neutralize each other. The resulting rotation is zero, such a mixture is called racemic.

Title of the experiment: Determining the correct fall and rise of sugar beet
In general, every shipment of beet that enters the factory should be sampled and its loss determined. Sampling of each shipment is done by hand or with the help of a hydraulic sampler called Rupro or by using a mechanical shovel that randomly separates the sample on the conveyor belt. Mainly, for small cars, 30 kg of samples and for large trucks, 50 kg of beets are taken to determine the weight loss. Loss refers to the materials that are delivered with beet in every shipment, such as soil, stone, leaf, collar, etc.
In the industrial scale, most of the soil on the beet is taken from the vibrator and returned to the truck, and the truck is weighed again with the soil and the initial weight of the truck, soil and beet is deducted, and the weight of the beet is calculated without soil. The actual amount of drop is around 10-15%. But experts and experienced people in the factory consider its value to be 2-3%.
Mark is a part of the beet tissue that remains insoluble after extraction with a certain amount of hot water and for a certain period of time. The basis of the work is to remove the soluble materials and weigh the insoluble materials after drying. Usually, the brand is determined by weight or gravimetric method and its value is between 4-5% depending on the climatic conditions and variety.

Test title: Determining the amount of ash
Ash is the mineral material of an object that remains after burning. The amount and composition of ash of a food item depends on the nature of that food and the method of making ash. Pure sugar, honey and syrups have little ash up to 0.5%, but sweeteners with brown sugar or chocolates have more minerals. The minerals that form ash in different foods are completely different. Total ash is an accepted index for the amount of purification in some food items such as wheat flour and sugar. In other words, the more purification is done in this case, the lower the ash. In the case of sugar or sugarcane, the higher the color removal and crystallization, the less the ash will be. And the purity of sugar increases. To determine the ash, one of the burning methods is used in the furnace and the second is the electrical conductivity method. The conductometric method or determining the electrical conductivity of a solution is a simple and serial method to determine the ash of sugars. Sugary materials have low ash. For this reason, if we want to use the burning method, it requires taking a large amount of sample, which is accompanied by foaming of carbohydrates. Conductivity method is based on the fact that the mineral substances of sugar solutions are charged. Then they are separated, while sucrose is a non-electrolyte and is not separated. Of course, it should be mentioned that in the sugar industry, there is another device for measuring ash, which is the quick ash meter that reads the amount of ash in the sample.

Test title: Determining the percentage of invert sugar
In industrial solutions of sugar or sugar products, there are sugars that, unlike sucrose, have regenerating properties, such as glucose and fructose, some of which enter the syrups through beets, and some of which are created due to the decomposition of sucrose in an acidic environment. In injured and wilted beets, the amount Invert sugar increases rapidly, so this component of sugar must be measured in the laboratory. The most common method of measuring invert sugar is the use of bivalent copper sulfate alkaline solutions. Because invert sugars have rejuvenating properties and convert double-capacitance copper into single-capacitance copper, which causes precipitation. In factories, they should prevent the formation of invert sugar because the amount of sucrose waste in molasses increases, and also the amount of colored substances in thick syrup due to The heat of evaporation and consequently the color of sugar impurity increases, which in turn affects the quality and cost of sugar purification. Different methods are used to determine the regenerating sugar, and these methods depend on the type of sample to be tested. For example, for Determining the regenerating sugar with more than two observations, such as the commercial product obtained from the hydrolysis of sugar or starch, or the extracting solution from dates, is used from a highly alkaline two-pot copper salt solution, such as Fehling's solution, which is a quantitative test. Also, to determine the regenerating sugar very little and up to 10% and in the vicinity of a large amount of sucrose such as sugar and sugar syrups, a divalent copper salt solution that has been alkalized like Moller's solution is used. Moller's solution does not have much effect on sucrose in a weakly alkaline environment.

Title of the test: sugar beet calibration
This method is used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of objects that have optical activity. White light vibrates in all directions, and if it passes through Polaroid objects like some natural crystals, it is divided into two rays. Because the speed of each of the two rays inside the crystal is different. If you cut the crystal along one of the poles with a suitable angle. And stick it again with a gum called Canada balsam, the part called normal radiation is reflected and exits. In the event that the part called abnormal radiation (polarized) is emitted without failure, the vibration of this light is on the same level and perpendicular to the direction of its propagation. There are objects with optical activity that have in their molecular structure carbon atoms (i.e. carbon atoms that are four different groups are connected). This carbon atom causes the molecule to become asymmetric and the molecule cannot conform to its mirror image. If these objects are placed in the path of polarized light, they cause the rotation of polarized light. If the object rotates the polarized light clockwise, it is called dextrorotatory, and if it rotates counterclockwise, it is called levorotatory. They say

Along with the pamphlet file of the sugar laboratory and all the formats of the downloadable files, it can be edited in Word, so that you can easily put your changes. Dear user, it is recommended to download.

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