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دانلود جزوهLaboratory sciences در قالب فایل ورد

دانلود-جزوه-علوم-آزمایشگاهی در-قالب-فایل-ورد
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دانلود جزوهLaboratory sciences در قالب فایل ورد با قابلیت ویرایش

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جزییات به شرح زیر می باشد

  • عنوان : علوم آزمایشگاهی
  • File format: word doc
  • Applicability with Office versions: 2013 to the latest version
  • It has the ability to edit after downloading
  • Possibility of printing: without any problem in printing
  • تعداد صفحه : 34

A part of the selected text from inside the Word file about safety in the laboratory is as follows

Microscope is one of the main laboratory equipment in the laboratory. Here we present in detail how to work with a normal light microscope.
Different microscopes have different magnifications, and generally, with the presence of different lenses, the image of the desired sample is multiplied. The general principles in all types of microscopes are based on the passage of light with different wavelengths through several convex lenses, the shorter the wavelength of the light used in the said microscope, the greater the separation power of that microscope. For example, the resolution of the human eye is 0.1 mm, and a normal light microscope is 0.24 microns.
 1 -  ميكروسكوپ نوري ( Light Microscope   ) 
The light source in this microscope is visible light, passing through several convex lenses embedded in it and a prism that changes the direction of the light (dissolving power of 0.24 microns).

اجزاي ميكروسكوپ نوري 
1- Optical components: Optical components mainly include the light power source and related parts, such as a 20-watt lamp, a light correction filter, and a condenser, which consists of five parts that correct the light and place it on the sample or The object under investigation focuses on:
1.فيلتر رنگي ( تصحيح نور )                   
2.ديافراگم كه حجم نور را تنظيم ميكند 
3.دو عدد عدسي محدب       
4.پيچ نگهدارنده كندانسور      
5.پيچ تنظيم ديافراگم
       2 – اجزاي مكانيكي : 
1- Base: All the parts of the microscope are placed on the base. In some optical microscope models, the light source, fuse and power cable are installed in the base.
2-Handle: The handle is used to transport the microscope. An important point is that when moving the microscope, we do not drag it on the work table.
3- Microscope barrel (Barrel): It consists of an ocular lens and an objective lens, which are designed with different magnifications. The objective lens has magnifications of X4, X10, X40, X60, and X100, and the eyepiece has magnifications of X10, X15, and X18, which are different depending on the type of microscope. An objective lens usually consists of several convex lenses embedded in it.
4- Revolver: the objective lenses are placed on this screen and the position of the objective lenses changes by turning it.
5- Fast movement screw (Macrometric): This screw is installed on the handle and makes the platinum plate move at a higher speed in the vertical direction.
6- Slow movement screw (Micrometric): This screw is placed on the fast movement screw and moves the platinum plate in the vertical direction and within microns.
7- Platine plate: It is a plate on which the target sample is placed and it has two graduated rulers in the direction of length and width, which is used to record and note the location of a specific sample.
8- Length and width screw: This screw is located under the platinum plate, which moves it in the direction of length and width.
The magnification of a microscope is the product of the magnification of the objective lens and the magnification of the eyepiece.

تهیه گسترش خونی و رنگ آمیزی 
هدف ازتهيه گسترش خوني
1.شمارش افتراقي گلبولهاي سفيد(DIFF)
2.بررسي مرفولوژي گلبولها

ويژگيهاي يک گسترش خوني:

Preparation of a standard blood smear is the first step in distinguishing between normal and abnormal blood cells and ruling on them, and an incorrect blood smear causes problems in the diagnosis of blood cells.

Blood spread should occupy two thirds of the slide surface, short blood spread has a low value.
•گسترش خوني ازابتدا وانتهاي لام فاصله داشته باشد.
•گسترش خوني مطلوب داراي مناطق ضخيم متوسط ونازک ميباشد.
• The end of the bloody spread is a candle flame, the end of the uneven, crooked and pointed bloody spreads is considered worthless.
•يک گسترش خوني خوب داراي دو حاشيه دردو سمت لام دارد
The preparation of a good blood smear needs training and practice, however, for preparing a thin blood smear by reducing the angle, and for preparing a thick slide by increasing the angle, we achieve this goal.
I would like to point out that in order to prepare a good slide for anemia, removing a larger drop of blood or increasing the angle can obtain the desired slide.
Causes of artifact (ARTEACTCT) in slides stained for differential counting (DIFF)
الف) درموقع نمونه گيري
1- Prolonged closing of the tourniquet (HEMOCONCENTRATION) increases the blood parameters. The maximum duration of closing the tourniquet is one minute.
۲- کشيدن سريع خون در سرنگ باعث ليز گلبولهاي قرمز ميشود.
  اگر اندازه نيدل سرنگ نامناسب باشد، باعث تغيير فرم گلبولها ميشود.
 انتقال خون به لوله با فشار باعث تغيير فرم گلبولها ميشود.
The needle should be separated from the syringe and the blood should be slowly introduced into the inner wall of the tube and slowly mixed with the anticoagulant.
If the tube is contaminated with a very small amount of detergent, or the tube is not dry, the blood will be hemolyzed.
Blood sampling from the patient's branula, which receives the serum, is one of the causes of the artifact in the slide.
ب) ماده ضدانعقاد:
۱-  انتخاب ماده ضدانعقاد مناسب براي آزمايش(CBC) ماده ضدانعقادEDTA است.
۲-  مقدار کم ماده ضد انعقادسبب ايجاد ذرات لخته وخط ادر تست مي شود.
3- A large amount of anticoagulant causes shrinkage and changes in the shape of red blood cells.
4- A large amount of anticoagulant reduces the average volume of red blood cells. Basically, it follows the reduction of (MCV).
5- As a result of blood remaining on the anticoagulant EDTA, changes in the shape of the blood cells occur.
پ) زمان:
۱- تاخير درفيکس کردن فروتي باعث تغيير شکل وتغيير اندازه گلبولها ميشود.
ج) رنگ آميزي
۱- باز ماندن درب ظرف رنگ باعث تغيير PH رنگ ميشود
۲- اگر رنگ را صاف نکنيم رسوبات رنگ باعث مشکل مي شود.
۳- خشک شدن رنگ بر روي لام در طي رنگ آميزي
۴- شتستن نا کافي لام بعدازپايان مرحله رنگ آميزي.
د) فوت کردن :
Before fixing, drying on a floor or using a fan with high speed will cause the accumulation of hemoglobin in the middle of the red blood cells and create a TB target on the slide.

آشنايي با رنگها:
رنگ آميزي(staining):
In honor of Mr. Romanowski, romanowski, Wright-stain, GIMSA-Stian, etc. were named after Romanowski's colors.
رنگ رايت ( wrigth-stian):
This dye contains acidic dyes such as eosin and basic or alkaline dyes such as methylene blue.
اساس رنگ آميزي:
Acidic components and structures of cells accept alkaline dyes, so these structures are called basophilic (alkali-loving) friendly substances, such as the cell nucleus, which is colored blue in this staining. Components and structures that allow only acidic dyes are acidophilic (acid They are called friend) or eosinophilic (eosinophilic). These components, which are located in the cytoplasm of some cells, are colored red with this staining. The building components that release a combination of two dyes, an acid dye and a base dye, are called neutrophilic. called
بهترين رنگ براي رنگ آميزي گسترش خوني رنگ رايت+ گيمسا است
**Giemsa staining is still used as a routine staining in laboratories due to the problems and defects mentioned for it.
طرزتهيه گسترش خوني:
وسايل کار: 
دو عدد لام يک بار مصرف تميز- پنبه – الکل- لانست- متانول- رنگ گيمسا
روش کار:
First, we disinfect the fingertip with cotton dipped in alcohol. Then the lancet pierces the tip of the finger and blood flows
We place a drop of blood (using a simple hematocrit tube) in one centimeter from the end of the slide (the edge of the other slide) with an angle of 30-45 degrees on the drop of blood. A moment later, all the blood is on the edge of the slide. The joint of the two slides spreads. Now we move the slide forward with a gentle pressure and at a uniform speed on the surface of the first slide. At the end of the blood spread, let it dry well in the laboratory air, then we fix the blood on the slide by pouring methanol alcohol. We let the surface Let the slide dry well. This slide is ready for staining.
رنگ آميزي: 
First, we identified and marked the real side of the blood slide, and we fixed it with methanol alcohol on the same side of the slide that we have drawn blood on before.
نحوه رنگ آميزي:
We dilute the Giemsa dye in a ratio of one to ten (1cc dye + 9cc water) and then we put the slide inside it. Then we wash the dye on the slide. The slide turns blue to purple.
نکاتي در مورد لام ها :
۱- بايد لامها را تميزوعاري ازچربي انتخاب کرد.
۲- لام (rode) بايد لبه اش صاف باشد.
3- In the interval between the preparation of each blood spread, we should wipe the edge of the slide (rode) from the blood with a wet cloth so that it does not interfere with the next sample.
اسپکتروفتومتر
Absorbance methods are one of the most powerful and common methods of measuring a wide range of analytes. Many devices used in diagnostic laboratories are based on measuring the absorption or transmission of radiant energy.
In the 1940s, photometers and spectrophotometers were invented (manual methods). Spectrophotometer or photometer is an expression that is used to measure the absorption or transmission energy of light. In spectrophotometric methods, the effect of solutions on electromagnetic waves is studied. The range of the electromagnetic spectrum can be from ultraviolet rays to radio waves.
The amount of light absorbed by the solution is subject to Beer's and Lambert's laws and is calculated from the equation A=e lc. According to Beer's law, whenever a monochromatic light ray passes through a solution with a complementary color, the amount of light absorbed by the solution is directly proportional to its concentration. According to Lambert's law, the amount of light absorbed by different layers of the solution is always constant and does not depend on the intensity of the light emitted. According to Beer and Lambert's laws, the relationship between the concentration of the solution and the absorbed light is linear, and usually in the range where the absorption has a linear relationship with the concentration, the determination of the substance concentration is done. If the concentration of the sample and the standard are close to each other and the concentrations are are in the linear range, calculations can be done using proportionality.
The spectrophotometer consists of two parts: spectrometer and photometer. The spectrometer is the part that creates monochrome light and has a light source, lens, slits, monochromator (flat or prism). The photometer section has light measuring devices.
In this device, light is produced by a light source and after passing through the desired light sample, it is emitted in a spectral form, then detected by sensors and translated into usable results. The output of the spectrophotometer is always a plot of light intensity versus wavelength. The data collected to generate the graph is stored in a table of light intensity and wavelength. The value of the graph expresses the amount of passage or the amount of absorption. Today's spectrophotometers are digital and controlled by a microprocessor.
1.اجزا اسپکتروفوتومتر:
1.منبع نور:
The light source is generally a deuterium lamp that emits in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The second light source, tungsten lamp, is used for wavelengths in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
•نور ماوراء بنفش:
In addition to being very common in liquid spectroscopy, UV spectrophotometer is also used for gases as well as solids. It can be plastic, glass or quartz. Plastic and glass absorb UV, so they can only be used for visible light spectrophotometry.
•نور مرئی:
محدوده نور مرئی حدود ۷۰۰-۴۰۰ نانومتر است.
•نور مادون قرمز:
Infrared spectrophotometer is used in molecular identification and structure-dependent vibrations
2.سلول نمونه 
The sample is placed in a special rectangular chamber that is usually one centimeter wide. This chamber is called cuvvette. The sample cell must be made of a material that is transparent to the electromagnetic radiation used in the experiment. For the spectra that are taken in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum, the cells used are made of glass or plastic. But glass or plastic cannot be used for spectroscopy in the ultraviolet region, because they absorb ultraviolet light. Instead, quartz cells should be used, because quartz does not absorb radiation in this region of the spectrum.
3.مفسر:
Spectrophotometers can display their output in different ways, but it is more common to connect it to a computer and use software to analyze the data and display it in a usable form such as a graph of transmittance or absorbance in terms of Show wavelength.
•در هنگام نصب دستگاه اسپکتروفوتومتر باید به نکات زیر توجه داشت:
۱ - اسپکتروفوتومتر باید روی سطحی سفت و‌ در محیطی خشک و تمیز نصب شود.
2- In order to allow air flow around the spectrophotometer, there should be a distance of 50 mm between the device and the surrounding walls.
۳ - کابل برق دستگاه به پریز گراند شده با ولتاژ مناسب وصل شود.
4- After connecting the AC adapter to the power, its output must be connected to the device in such a way that the DC storage source is placed in its path.
5- If the device itself does not have a printer, it must be connected to the printer through a special port.
6- After turning on the device, wait for a while until the device heats up and reaches thermal and electronic stability.

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