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Strength of Materials Laboratory
The purpose of the materials resistance laboratory:
All parts that are used in machines and industrial devices have their own strengths and hardships that engineers after designing a machine or industrial device and all calculations related to the forces acting on each part of these devices must be the above parts. Are tested with a piece of the same material in terms of their hardness and strength to see if the piece can withstand the forces or stresses or not? These difficulties are done by different machines and devices.
What is the resistance of materials?
When a body is affected by an external force, it shows different resistances depending on the amount and manner of the force. The science that studies the effect of force on objects and the reaction they exhibit is called material strength.
Material strength discusses the relationship between the external forces and the internal forces of objects (the forces of adhesion) of the particles of the body. These relationships depend on the sex of the body and the dimensions of the body and how the force is applied.
Common terms in material resistance:
Strength or resistance is the maximum resistance of the body's internal forces against external forces.
The resistance that the body's molecules show to external forces to prevent deformation is called effort.
Stress: To measure the strength of a body, the force acting on a flat unit is usually calculated and called tension.
Resistance and material tests
1: Tensile test
Purpose: By testing the tensile strength of metals and drawing the diagram of stress and relative length change (the ratio of length change to initial length), it is possible to obtain the necessary information about the effect of force on the particles of the body and the reaction that the body shows with increasing force. .
Building a tensile testing machine
Includes a cylinder pulley and hydraulic piston to apply force to the movable jaw. Movable piston - fixed jaw - regulator - regulator - force gauge (in Kn).
How to test:
It will be that a sample of an object with a certain length and cross-sectional area is prepared and it is closed between two clamps of the tensile testing device and first we subject the object to a small force and measure the increase in length due to the application of this force. We continue the above operation with more forces until it leads to the rupture of the test sample. Now if we transfer the obtained characteristics on the coordinate axis whose vertical axis shows the stress diagram and its horizontal axis shows the percentage increase of relative length and we connect them. The diagram is similar to the diagram below, in which the limits shown in the diagram are recognizable.
Description of experiment
First we apply a force of about 0.5 Kn to get the looseness and then we reset the measuring clock to zero and coordinate the hands of the force gauge. Then add 0.5 Kn, respectively. We continue to do this until the piece breaks.
Title: Calculation of shear elasticity
The twisted members are often seen in engineering work. In this test, the twisted limb is discussed. This torsion is caused by the application of a torque or coupling to the member. Consider a circular shaft, one end of which is the fixed support of the product. If torque (T) is applied to the other end of this shaft or rod. The shaft is twisted and its free end rotates by (??). This angle is called the twist angle. Experiments and observations show that on a specific axis of the torque (T) the angle of torsion (??) is proportional to the torque. The angle (??) is also proportional to the length of the shaft. (Torsion angle) in the elastic region obtained from the relation: ?? = T.L / G.J.
The above equation equips us with a convenient way to determine the modulus of stiffness or shear elasticity of a given material. An example of this material is mounted in the form of a cylindrical wire with a known diameter and length in a torsion tester and torque is applied and torsion angle values (??) are recorded.
Testing of a piece of copper with diameters of 10 mm and 5 mm
There have been.
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